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                皇帝一詞始于何時?

                時間: 2014-07-17 16:30    來源:北京晚報         點擊:
                皇帝是中國封建社會國家最高統治者的稱號,但最早皇和帝并不是一個詞,而分別是兩個稱號,如“三皇”、“五帝”,最早的國家最高統治者大多則以“王”來稱呼,如春秋戰國時期的齊王、燕王、趙王……首次將皇帝倆字用來稱呼國家最高統治者,始于秦始皇嬴政。那么,秦始皇是怎么確定這一名稱的呢? 


                  春秋戰國時期,周王室逐漸衰微。于是,一些實力強大的諸侯國的國君便自稱為“王”。公元前221年,秦王嬴政揮鞭四舉,滅掉了其他六國,平定天下,統一中國。嬴政認為,自己的功業是亙古未有的,甚至連“三皇五帝”都比不上。為了“稱成功,傳后世”,他決定改變“王”的稱號。于是,召集群臣,商議改號之事。丞相王綰說:“三皇五帝雖然是天下共主,可他們實際上占領的土地不過方圓千里。自商周起,稱‘王’者才真正擁有了天下,而且他們的豐功偉績可以維持七八百年。所以說‘王’的稱號最好。”嬴政聽了卻不以為然。他認為,“商朝七百年、周八百年的天下不算什么,我要的是萬世永傳的朝代。”這時,李斯開口了,他說:“如今四海之內皆是陛下的囊中之物,這是從未有過的事。陛下的功績自然為三皇五帝所不及。古有天皇、地皇、泰皇,而泰皇最尊貴,臣認為陛下可稱泰皇。”嬴政聽罷連連點頭:“依我看,‘泰皇’仍沒多大區別。不如去‘泰’留‘皇’,采上古‘帝’號,稱‘皇帝’。我稱始皇帝,后世以數計,二世、三世,直至萬世,傳之無窮。”

                  就這樣,秦王嬴政成了中國歷史上的“始皇帝”,后世因而通稱他為“秦始皇”。


                  從秦始皇算起,中國的封建社會長達兩千多年,當過皇帝的人多達千余位。其中,在位時間最長的是清圣祖康熙,皇帝當了61年;最短命的皇帝是1916年倒行逆施稱帝的袁世凱,皇帝夢只做了84天。壽命最長的皇帝是清高宗乾隆,享年89歲;壽命最短的是東漢殤帝劉隆,2歲夭亡。馬小軍
                數據統計中!!


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