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                什么是“駢體文”?

                時間: 2014-07-17 18:16    來源:中國華文教育網         點擊:
                駢體文,產生于魏晉時代,在六朝廣為流行。 
                  可以舉六朝作家庾信的一篇作品為例:
                  謝趙王賚白羅袍褲啟
                  某啟:垂賚白羅袍褲一具。程據上表,空諭雉頭;王恭入雪,虛稱鶴氅。未有懸機巧紲,變繆奇文,鳳不去而恒飛,花雖寒而不落。披千金之暫暖,棄百結之長寒。永無黃葛之嗟,方見青綾之重。對天山之積雪,尚得開衿;冒廣廈之長風,猶當揮汗。白龜報主,終自有期;黃雀謝恩,竟知何日? 
                  這是庾信為了答謝北周趙王招賜給他一身棉衣而寫的一封信。這在六朝駢文中屬于短篇,卻是一篇典型的駢體文章,可以從中看到這種文體的一些特點:
                  1、全篇文章都是用對偶句組成。這篇文章除“某啟”下一句是散句外,都可以分為上、下聯,而且字數、結構和詞性完全對稱,如“程據”對“王恭”(人名),“千金”對“百結”(數字),“白龜”對“黃雀”(動物)。
                  2、對偶句用四字句和六字句組成。初期駢體文,以四、六字句為主,其中也往往摻雜五、七字句。齊梁以后,特別是唐宋以后,“四六”的格式就定型化了,駢體文因此也叫“四六文”。
                  3、在聲韻上,駢體文可以分為韻駢文和無韻駢文兩類。駢體文講究平仄,是從齊、梁開始,而形成于盛唐,唐以后在格律上更加嚴格。
                  4、在用詞上注重藻飾和用典。所謂用典,就是援引古人、古事和古人的話來加強論據,證明自己的觀點古已有之。在庾信這篇不到二十句的短文,就用了八個典故。如“白龜報主”,用的是《幽明錄》中,邾城人買龜放生,后來得到善報的事。
                  駢體文是中國特有的一種文體,從古代文學中的一種修辭手法逐漸發展形成。作為一種新文體,在當時對它還沒有一個正式和固定的稱呼。“駢文”、“駢麗文”的名稱,是在唐代以后才有的。
                數據統計中!!


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