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                中國古代高考如何嚴懲作弊?

                時間: 2012-07-07 17:10    來源:         點擊:
                原文標題:中國古代高考如何嚴懲作弊者:輕者罰款 重者充軍
                核心提示:“應試生儒舉人監生,但有懷挾文字、銀兩,并越舍與人換寫文字者,俱問發充吏,三考滿日為民;若系官吏,就發為民。”這段明史史料便記載了明代嚴懲作弊者的法規,輕者罰款,重者還要坐牢房、發配到邊疆充軍,若是官吏還要貶為庶民。 style="text-align: center"> style="text-align: center">(古代科舉考試作弊工具:微縮書 資料圖) 本文摘自:中新網,作者:彭勝發,原題:古代高考作弊 有著一千多年歷史的科舉考試完全稱得上是古代的高考了。科舉之路,一可光宗耀祖,二可順利踏上仕途娶嬌妻發大財,真可謂書中自有顏如玉書中自有黃金屋。面對如此誘惑,古人為順利地考取功名,可謂費盡心思,夾帶半個巴掌大的蠅頭書進入考場、賄賂官吏、買通負責搜身的士兵、種種方法不勝枚舉。 為防止考生偷偷攜帶數據進入考場,官方專門在每個考場安排一個負責搜身的兵勇。可這樣的安排依舊難免產生士兵與考生相互勾結,各取其利的現象。這個時候準考證便應運而生了。 在古代,準考證稱為浮票,清朝時期參加考試的考生考試前每人發一張“票據”和“座位便覽”,沒有這兩樣東西的不準進入。為防止代考者,準考證詳細地記載著考生的身高、面色、有無胡須、胎痣等身體特征。考生進入考場時,監考官拿著準考證一一看過,才能進入考場。 除了準考證這道防線,考生報考時也有一條可以防止考生作弊的防線。古代科舉考試無論貧賤都可以報考,到明清時期則規定娼、優、隸、皂這四種人的子弟必須在三代以后才有報考的資格,這未免顯得不近情理。官方要求考生報考時必須五個結保報考,意為五人彼此相互擔保報考,若以后參加考試誰有作弊行為,則五個人都要受到牽連。 雖然有這兩道防線,但仍不免鬧出許多笑話。譬如注明考生身體特征的準考證雖然在一定程度上抑制了作弊行為,但其實用性還是顯得有些令人懷疑。稍微有一兩個長相差不多的人站在一起,恐怕就難以辨認孰真孰假了。 相比較而言,古代防止作弊的措施里最有效的應該是搜身了。據說金國時期,負責搜檢的士兵一般都不識字,這是為了以防士兵與考生勾結在一起。“解發袒衣,索及耳鼻”《金史》里的這句話則說明當時金國搜檢考生達到了必須解開發髻,袒露衣服,連鼻子耳朵都要細細搜索的程度。可見,金國對科舉作弊的嚴懲態度。后來因這樣檢查讀書人有辱斯文,受到不少官員的反對,于是改成了考試之前必須在考場指定的地方沐浴洗澡,然后換上官方準備的衣服。這樣一來,明顯顯得斯文文明許多,作弊現象也大減。 “應試生儒舉人監生,但有懷挾文字、銀兩,并越舍與人換寫文字者,俱問發充吏,三考滿日為民;若系官吏,就發為民。”這段明史史料便記載了明代嚴懲作弊者的法規,輕者罰款,重者還要坐牢房、發配到邊疆充軍,若是官吏還要貶為庶民。 由此可見,古代高考作弊與防作弊真是五花八門,趣味橫生,也恐怕只有嚴懲才能完全禁止作弊現象了。(摘自香港《大公報》文/彭勝發)
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