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                古人是如何降暑的?

                時間: 2012-07-06 14:05    來源:重慶晚報         點擊:
                原文標題:古代人夏天也吃冷飲(1) 扇子的發明人是誰,目前已無法考證,不過我估計這種辦法原始社會時就有人掌握了,只是他們手里拿的很可能是一片大大的樹葉,搖破了再爬樹摘一片,很費事。 后來,扇子變結實了,多是用竹編的,古人稱之為“搖風”,還有人給它起了個好聽的名字叫“涼友”。經濟條件好的人家會買用絹帛制成的扇子,搖起來比較省力氣,也比較有“檔次”。文人墨客喜歡在扇面上寫詩作畫,既可消暑,又添情趣。如果是達官貴人,在酷暑則可以享受“人工風扇”。主人涼爽愜意,仆人當然是要汗流浹背的。到了漢代,一種名叫“葉輪撥風”的大型納涼器具騰空出世,其消暑效果非常可觀。《西京雜記》中記載:“長安巧匠丁緩作七輪扇,大皆徑丈,相連續,一人運之,滿堂寒顫。”“滿堂寒顫”這四個字很令人震撼,不過又肯定要害得那“一人運之”的“一人”滿身臭汗。 涼屋 唐代出現了一種供人消暑的“涼屋”。“涼屋”通常傍水而建,采用類似水車的方式推動扇輪搖轉,將涼氣徐徐送入屋中,或者利用機械將水送至屋頂,然后沿檐而下,制成“人工水簾”,屋子里自然會涼快起來。這個方法比“人工風扇”和“葉輪撥風”效果好得多,不論從科技角度看,還是從人文角度看,都是一種進步(哪怕后一種的進步是順帶的)。到了明代,“涼屋”的建設進入了一個新階段,明朝文人高濂在《遵生八箋》中對此有精彩描述:“霍都別墅,一堂之中開七井,皆以鏤刻之,盤覆之,夏日坐其上,七井生涼,不知暑氣。”不難看出,明代人已知道在消暑時巧妙利用地理優勢,掘井納涼,天然環保,不乏科學道理。 冷飲 扇子也罷,“涼屋”也好,身上涼快了,嘴巴卻享受不到。都說“民以食為天”,大夏天的,要是不吃點喝點冰涼之物哄哄嘴巴,怎么會舒服?所以,冷飲也早早出現了。 大約在三千年前的商代,富貴人家就已經開始在冬日鑿冰貯藏于窖,以備來年盛夏消暑之需。周朝設有專掌“冰權”的“凌人”。西周時期,“凌人”更上升為朝廷中的一個職位,從職者專門負責冷飲的制作,這足以說明當時冷飲之珍貴。春秋末期,諸侯喜愛在宴席上飲冰鎮米酒。《楚辭·招魂》中有“挫糟凍飲,酹清涼些”的記述,贊賞冰鎮過的糯米酒,喝起來既醇香又清涼。古代甚至還有“冰廚”——《吳越春秋》中就記載越王勾踐出游時食宿于冰廚,在當時,它堪稱空調房間,可想而知耗用人力和冰量一定相當大。 唐代開始出現“冰商”,也就是商業性的藏冰戶。冬天藏冰,入夏拿出來賣。有“冰商”賣冰只認錢不認人,高估了人們的“渴望”,反而弄巧成拙。據《唐摭言》載,有人盛夏在街頭賣冰,過路人熱不可耐,都想一食為快。賣冰者自以為奇貨可居,故意把冰價抬高,路人一氣之下都忍熱走開了。不一會兒,冰都融化了,賣冰人賠了本。比起今天的一些房地產商來,這位賣冰人真是不幸。 到了宋代,冷飲有了新的突破。南宋詩人楊萬里曾對一種叫“冰酪”的冷飲大加贊賞:“似賦還咸爽,才凝又欲飄;玉來盤底碎,雪到口邊消。”馬可·波羅來中國時,受元世祖賞賜,幸福地品嘗到了當時的皇家冷飲“冰酪”(它由果汁、牛奶、冰塊等調制而成)。后來,馬可·波羅把“冰酪”的制作技術帶回意大利。意大利對這一技術嚴加保密三百年后,被法國人出高價買走,此后不知怎么的又傳到了英國。英國人改造后,制出了我們今天常吃的“冰激凌”。不知道他們大賺其錢時,有沒有想到要謝謝一下中國的忽必烈。
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