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                盤點中日近代的幾次交涉

                時間: 2012-07-06 13:24    來源:《近代中國的變局》    郭廷以     點擊:
                原文標題:兩敗俱傷:中日近代交涉中的慘痛教訓(圖)
                副標題#e#   一   如果就相交之道來論,中國絕無負于日本,日本大有愧于中國。八十年前的兩千年,中國施之于日本者甚厚,有造于日本者至大,八十年來日本報之于中國者極酷,為禍于中國者獨深。近代中國所受的創痛,縱不能謂均系來自日本,而實以日本所給予者為最多最巨。結果中國固飽食其害,但日本又何嘗利?損人害己,徒為第三者制造機會,誠所謂兩敗俱傷,親者痛,仇者快!   十九世紀中期,是遠東局勢激變的時代,中日同為遭受侵凌的國家,同面臨一新的危機,處境相若,利害相近。以地理的關系,中國首當自西而東的洶涌巨潮之沖,南而海洋上的英吉利,北而大陸上的俄羅斯;以歷史的關系,中國有其悠久傳統與自得文化,雖不拒人千里,亦不輕于去從。日本情形大異,而最近的中國又作了它的前車,它明白了如何因應。在明治維新前五年,即一八六三(同治二年,日本文久三年),目光炯銳的李鴻章,于其上曾國藩書中曾云“其國之君臣卑禮下人,求得英法秘巧,槍炮輪船,漸能制用,遂與英法相為雄長”,備致贊佩之意,毫無嫉忌之情。明治維新之后,他又論到日本“自與西人定約,廣購機器兵船,仿制槍炮鐵路,又派人往西國學習各色技業,其志固欲自強以御侮”,于欽慕之中實有諒宥。設若日本的自強始終是為了“御侮”,不惟是中國之幸,東亞之榮,世界之福,更是日本的應取之道。然而事實上證明其絕不如是。它明于現勢的如何因應,但昧于將來的如何自處。   少數較有遠識的日本人,鑒于東方國際情況的劇變,“日本介居其間,譬如孤城獨峙,勢將危殆”,俄國尤為可怕,欲“求唇齒之邦于宇內,舍滿清殆無有也”,這是正確的看法。但是另一部分有力者,不作此想,認為中國自“鴉片戰爭以后,政治仍然不整,內有長發(太平軍)之擾,外被英法之侵(一八五八—一八六○年英法聯軍之役)。……先發制人,后發制于人,以今日之形勢論,宜先出師,取清之一省,而置根據于亞東大陸之上,內以增日本之勢力,外以昭武勇于宇內。……清人與日本人異,茍兵力足以制其民,則無不帖然從服”。其視中國為如何,及其居心為如何,昭然若揭。八十年間日本的策略大體不離乎此。但并未全如其打算,內憂外患的中國,固予以可乘之機,然而兵力既不能使中國人民“帖然從服”,先發亦未能制人,終且為人所制。甲午戰前,尚系伺隙而動,乘危侵凌,甲午戰后,猙獰面目已露,民初以來,變本加厲,投降前的十五年,則等于瘋狂。   二   日本之走進近代國際政治,為一八五四年的事,較中國尚遲十二年;此后的十年,雖是中國內外多故,情勢岌岌,日本亦正自顧不暇。一八六八年(同治七年,日本明治元年)明治維新,立即移其目光于中國。過去的二十余年,中國連遭英法的軍事打擊,俄國的鯨吞蠶食,十八年的長期內亂,積弱不振,一八七○年西南西北的騷動正在有加無已(黔苗及云南陜甘新疆回變),而天津教案(法國領事遇害),不惟幾演成中法之戰,且招致列強的共同抗議與示威。就在此時,日本派出了專使前來,預請訂約,用意已屬不善。新任直隸總督李鴻章是相當認識日本的,如予拒絕,“必為我仇”,何況日使又動之以“宜先通好,以冀同心合力”的甘言。及后議及約文,日使則定要援據以往中西不平等條約的成例。最后除了“利益均沾”一款,其余如領事裁判權、協議關稅等事,應有盡有。中國愿以平等地位待日本,日本反以不平等待中國,如何會作到“同心合力”?約文中的第二款,謂此后兩國應互相關切,若他國生事,必須彼此相助,或從中善為調處,這是中國的主張,足見中國確想作到“同心合力”。條約訂立于一八七一年,日本遲不批準,翌年竟提出修改要求,不惟要添入最惠國條款,且主刪除此一條款。李鴻章斥其墨沈未干,忽翻前議,責其失信反復,堅不允行。日本的存心,亦即可知。這是中日雙方態度的開始表現,孰是孰非,毋庸多說。   條約的第一款明定兩國所屬邦土,不可稱有侵越,而在換約之年(一八七三),所謂臺灣“番地征討”已呼之欲出,“征韓論” 亦正高唱入云。后者暫時雖未成事實,前者竟于翌年揭開。既不預先行文照會,徑自發兵犯境,不惟破壞條約,亦且是無理取鬧,行徑詭變,譎詐已極。誠如李鴻章所說:“去年才換和約,今年就起兵來,如此反復,當初何必立約?我從前以君子相待,方請準和約,如何卻與我丟臉?可謂不夠朋友!”“口說和好之話,不做和好之事。”“大丈夫做事,總應光明正大,雖兵行詭道,而兩國用兵,題目總要先說明白。”李以“君子”“朋友”看待日本,而它不以君子朋友自居;李希望中日“和好”,勸告日本做事“光明正大”,等于癡想。這時正是日軍在臺灣大肆燒殺,陸軍大臣上其“外征三策”,太政大臣通知陸海兩省準備對華軍事。大規模的戰爭雖不曾演成,而日本專使大久保利通對總理各國事務衙門(當時的外交部)的兇狡狠辣,發前所未有。日本第一次的對華最后通牒,即是他所提出,措詞萬分令人難堪!聲言“兩國生靈終為何狀,未可知也!”兩周之后,再以恫嚇的口吻,表示決裂,各行其是。這是一種什么樣的態度?中國屈服了,中國的地位更低落了,我們無力抗拒西洋,亦不敢抗拒日本。談判的期中,英國已想乘機漁利,第二年即以滇案(馬嘉理事件)為題目以逞其大欲。同時中國當局對日本的看法亦完全改變了,“寇志漸長”,和好無望,“目前惟防日本為尤急”(軍機大臣兼總理衙門大臣文祥語),這是中日關系的大轉向,而其責自有人負。   三   日本之干涉琉球,始于中日訂約的次年,實行并滅,在一八七九年(光緒五年,明治十二年),正當伊犁交涉之時,不久中俄關系緊張,中國深恐日俄相結,日本果然起而勒索。一八八○年(光緒六年)六月俄國兵船駛向長崎集中,作進擾沿海的姿態,七月日本重提琉球交涉。并及最惠國條款。北京當局不敢堅拒,若干人士亦主速了此案,聯日孤俄,但反對過分對日讓步者亦多。李鴻章對日原抱善意,而近十年來日本所給他的印象,使他不能不改變態度。他認為海防重要,日本近在肘腋,尤為中土大患,西北問題,比較次要。俄國的強大,在日本之上,俄事了,則日本即戢其戒心;俄事未了,則日本將萌其詭計。“與其多讓于倭而倭不能助我以拒俄,則我既失之于倭,而又將失之于俄;何如稍讓于俄,而我因得借俄以懾倭。夫俄與日本強弱之勢,相去百倍,若論理之曲直,則日本之侮我為尤甚”。這是李鴻章聯俄動機的由來,亦是聯俄政策的最初表現。其是非得失且不必論,而逼得中國走向此途的則為日本。   朝鮮問題更是中日爭執的癥結。日本對華的前期政策,在這一幕中,盡可能的發揮。侵臺之前,征韓之議雖起,然尚有所顧慮,侵臺之后,確實證明中國對于自己的本土尚無護衛之力與果決拒抗之志,何況于屬邦朝鮮。江華島事件一起(一八七五),日本即決定斷然處置,否認中韓一體的歷史關系。當李鴻章與日使森有禮談判之時,仍想納中日關系于正軌,謂東方諸國,“均須同心和氣,挽回局面,方敵得歐羅巴住”,而森有禮則赤裸裸的說出,“和約沒有用處,國家舉事,只看誰強,不必盡依著條約”!更進而謂“萬國公法亦可不用”!李鴻章警告他不可一味逞強,否則終不為天地所容,如若開仗,“我們一洲自生疑釁,豈不被歐羅巴笑話”?森有禮的回答是:“歐羅巴正要看我們的笑話”!這是什么話?這是什么態度?最后李又忠告他“俄羅斯聽見日本要打高麗,即擬派兵進扎黑龍江口”,“那時亂鬧起來,真無益處”。但是日本正要人家看笑話!   李鴻章原本無意反日,更非無保留的親俄,他知道俄國一樣的不是朋友,屢次向朝鮮當局道及備御俄人之方。江華事件過去之后,不久(一八七六年十月)日本前外務卿副島種臣過天津與李論及時事,表示中日當并力防俄,李曾稱贊他才略不凡。接著森有禮亦和李談到俄人南侵的可慮,欲與中韓聯合以拒,決不同室操戈,李亦深韙其議,并云彼此均應體恤朝鮮孤立之情,不可逼迫以難堪之事。中日關系似有新的轉機,而實際日本毫無誠意,并力防俄,絕非由衷之論。伊犁事件日本所表現的態度,使李無法再寄予希望。中法戰爭的期間,其對朝鮮的行事,益使李鴻章不能不先其所急,全力應付日本。 class='page'> 上一頁 1
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