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                “宮斗劇”的本質:叢林法則

                時間: 2012-07-12 15:49    來源:人民日報         點擊:
                原文標題:論“宮斗劇”的文化本質:權謀背后是叢林法則

                閱讀提示

                ●“宮斗劇”以封建傳統道德作底,其價值基礎則是你死我活的叢林法則。秉持著這樣一種價值規范和意義邏輯的作品風行一時,甚至影響了許多人對歷史的想象和對現實的認知。

                ●民族復興的美好愿望,促使我們到歷史中去尋求資源,但辨析能力和批判能力的缺失,卻使得一些早應被淘汰的歷史沉渣,隨著“復古”潮理直氣壯地卷土重來。

                在民族文化多元發展的時代語境中,“復興傳統文化”已經成為近年來一種重要的思想潮流。其內涵日趨豐富、復雜,對社會生活的影響也越來越廣泛。但與此同時,各種對傳統文化辨析不明、良莠不分的情況也接連出現。這幾年頗為流行的“宮斗劇”,就暴露出了一個應該予以高度重視的問題,即我們的文藝創作究竟應該怎樣發掘和利用中華民族傳統的歷史與文化資源?

                歷史劇如何對待歷史資源

                “宮斗劇”由港劇《金枝欲孽》和《宮心計》開啟先河,內地電視圈跟風而上,《宮》、《步步驚心》、《宮鎖珠簾》、《美人心計》輪番登場。2012年,《后宮甄嬛傳》更是強勢出擊,收視大熱,一度成為公眾領域中最受關注的文娛話題。相較于那些制作草率粗糙、情節漏洞百出的同類電視劇,《后宮甄嬛傳》在道具、服飾和禮儀等細節上較為精致講究,對話語言也更符合人物所處的時代。那些“想來極好”、“不負恩澤”的用詞,模仿了《紅樓夢》等文學名著的句法,雖未得精髓卻也增添了一些古色古香的韻味,為該劇帶來了極高的人氣。

                從本質上看,“宮斗劇”屬于娛樂至上的“戲說歷史”,雖然不承擔再現真實的任務,但也存在著如何選擇和利用歷史資源的問題。換句話說,電視劇想象力的匱乏和創作水準的低下,只是宮斗題材重復出現的表面原因,更為深層和隱藏的因素,則與我們面對歷史的態度密切相關。事實上,“宮斗劇”不過是類型劇的一種。在“宮斗劇”盛行之前,宮廷題材歷史劇主要表現為兩種類型。以《雍正王朝》、《康熙王朝》、《漢武大帝》為代表的“帝王系列”,著力展示當權者稱霸天下的雄心和治理江山的艱難,重在塑造開疆拓土、守業有成的明君和廉政清明、以民為先的能臣,與主流意識形態重塑國家和民族認同感的精神吁求一脈相承。而以《康熙微服私訪記》、《鐵齒銅牙紀曉嵐》為代表的“戲說系列”,則延續了古已有之的“明君清官俠客夢”的敘事模式,其中隱含著強烈的現實針對性和批判性。即便是備受爭議的《還珠格格》,也不乏追求自由、蔑視權貴的動機與心理訴求。

                這些創作水準良莠不齊的電視劇,無一例外地涉及到對歷史資源的選擇和利用這個重要問題。借古諷今、鑒往知來的歷史觀,是中國文化的重要傳統之一。歷史在文藝創作中的想象與呈現,真實與否并不是首要考量的目標,借這面鏡子反映當下的社會現實和精神需求往往更為切要。而盛行一時的“宮斗劇”,雖然也希望“讓歷史照進現實”,但由于缺乏辨析能力和批判意識,歷史這面鏡子中反射出來的,只是一些曖昧不清的模糊身影。

                宮斗權謀背后是叢林法則

                顧名思義,“宮斗劇”中幾乎所有的故事都發生在與世隔絕的后宮中,“斗”是其核心情節和敘事重心。而在這個爾虞我詐的戰場上廝殺的,是一群原本嬌弱的貴族女性。她們拼死爭斗的目標只有一個:皇帝的雨露和恩寵。在這些后宮女子的人生中,只要是為了爭寵和固榮,一切手段與權謀都被認為是合理的。故事中的所有人物都表現出對這種價值觀的絕對認同,沒有質疑和反叛,沒有對與錯、善與惡的區分,所異者只有手段的高下與計謀的成敗,以及由此帶來的命運的迥然分野。但即便如此,這些智計百出的女子在強大的男權和君權面前,仍然是不堪一擊的。她們的得勢與失寵,都在皇帝的一念之間。尊貴如皇后、貴妃,渺小如宮女,都不過是帝王手中的一顆棋子。身處其中的女性,因而對自身的險惡處境有著強烈的危機意識和高度的敏感,種種拿不上臺面的陰狠伎倆,正是她們在“斗爭”中尋找到的應對之策。換句話說,她們不過是在重演“以惡制惡”的套路。

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