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                從古之今的權力追逐

                時間: 2012-07-07 17:10    來源:鳳凰網         點擊:
                原文標題:千年國人熱衷于追逐官位:權力泛化 收入豐厚

                權力,實在是觀察中國歷史和社會的一個絕好的切入點。

                “權力”一詞是中國人最常用的詞匯之一。何謂權力?大致上,人們公認權力就是一種命令與服從的關系。一個人擁有迫使你服從的力量,他就對你具有權力。這個概念運用范圍很廣,舉凡生活各領域各方面都能發現權力的影子。而對一個概念定義范圍的無限擴展,恰恰是消抹這個概念的開端。中國人的權力最核心的內容、最原始的源頭應該是和官府衙門緊密相連的。其他領域的權力用“影響力”來命名,可能更恰當。因此,本書的權力概念更多的是運用于政府范疇,指的是人們從政治體制中獲得的、強制性的、迫使他人服從的力量。

                先舉兩個例子來說明權力的概念。明清時期,北京的物資供應全靠漕運,有專門的官署管理。官署會為每批漕糧漕銀的押解規定到達日期,而無視運輸過程中的天氣變化和船隊的實際情況。船員水手們不敢違抗,想方設法趕在期限前送達。在這里,漕運衙門就對船只水手們擁有權力。這是無法與之理論、帶有強制性的權力。

                第二個例子是每個衙門中都有文書,就是抄抄寫寫的角色,看似沒有什么權力。他可能字寫得歪歪扭扭,力氣沒有你大,甚至耳聾背駝,老邁無用,但你就是裁撤不了他。如果你得罪了他,文書可以用文件處理的快慢、抄寫字跡的清晰潦草與否,來對與你有關的事務設置程序性的障礙。那么,這個文書就擁有你所沒有的權力。

                古代中國人對官位趨之若鶩。京郊的道路上,一邊是有人老態龍鐘告老還鄉去,一邊是有人千里迢迢頂風冒雨趕考來。科舉熱、升官圖、迎來送往、仕途八卦等“官場文化”流行千年。之所以前赴后繼不斷付出,是因為人們看中的就是各級官位具有的權力。官場結構是一個嚴密的、科層化、固定的結構,事事處處都有法律規定。從法律上看,官位越高權力就越大,管轄的范圍越大權力就越大,收入也越高。比如清朝七品縣令管轄一縣百里之地,年俸是45兩白銀;一品總督管轄一省或數省幾千里之地,年俸是180兩白銀。理論上,人們應該都去追逐品級高、法定權力大的職位。

                但同時,我們又看到許多奇怪的現象。有時候,人們追逐的并非是那些品級高、法定權力大的職位。而且,同級別的官員之間權力也有大有小,說話聲音也有高有低,一些官員發揮了遠大于朝廷授予他的權力,甚至超過了他的上級。可見,在實踐中,實際權力的大小與朝廷律法的規定并不一致。也就是說,個人的權力大小與他的品級大小、律法的明文規定沒有必然關系。這又是怎么回事呢?

                《清稗類鈔》記載了這么一則故事:雍正年間,內閣有個供事(也就是辦事員,屬于“吏”而不是“官”)藍某,老實上班認真做事。一年元宵節晚上,同事們都回家過節去了,只留藍某一人值班。藍某對月獨酌,正喝著,有個衣冠華麗的長者走進了內閣。藍某以為是宮廷值星官前來巡查,站起身來迎接,邀請他一起喝酒。來人欣然就座,問藍某官居何職。藍某說:“我不是官,只是小小的供事。”來人又問藍某的姓名履歷執掌,內閣的其他人都上哪去了。藍某老實回答說平時收發文牘打打雜,有同事四十余人今晚都回家過節了。來人就問:“你為什么留在這兒?”藍某說:“朝廷公務這么繁重,要是大伙兒都自顧自地,萬一發生了什么意外,到時候由誰來負責?”來人又問:“做供事有什么好處?”藍某說:“希望日后能夠‘轉正’做一個小官。”清朝為胥吏們設置了轉正為官的機制,不過都是些不入流的小官(有官員身份和編制,但沒有品級,在九品之外)。來人好奇地問:“做不入流的小官有什么好的?”藍某笑了:“假如我運氣好,能到廣東管理個河泊所,那就是大樂趣了!”

                河泊所是沿海負責征收漁稅的機構,負責人沒有品秩,連正式官名都沒有,是基層得不能再基層的小官。無論從身份地位,還是工作環境和壓力來說,河泊所都沒法和內閣比。從法定權力上來看,河泊所只能征收漁稅,也比不過內閣供事權力大。

                數據統計中!!


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