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                魏晉南北朝時期的語言哲學思想(1)

                時間: 2014-07-17 16:47    來源:國學文化         點擊:
                對于魏晉時期學術思想,后人或以清談誤國批評之,或以風度雅致贊美之,褒貶不一。然而,上自漢末下迄南北朝統一,玄風大盛,學術思想的自由解放、往復辯難的氣息濃厚,對于語言的哲學反思繼先秦、兩漢之后又上升到了一個新的高度。在諸如名實關系論、言意象之辨、“理勝”與“辭勝”之辨、佛經翻譯中的“格義”和“合本”等關乎語言的哲學論辯層出不窮。這一時期語言哲學思想,既有本體論的也有工具論的,既有認識論的也有境界論的。本文將分別從語言,政治、實在,翻譯和文字訓詁等四個方面對其進行簡要論述。 
                   
                  一、正名主義——從名實論到名理學 
                   
                  葛瑞漢曾經認為,中國語言哲學關注的主要不是本質問題而是名實相符問題。把握名實關系,不僅僅是研究整個中國古代語言觀的一條主線,也是研究魏晉南北朝時期語言觀的一把鑰匙。名與實,在先秦名家和墨家那里,一般被規定為能指與所指的關系,即作為共相的名稱、概念與其所指稱的具有共同本質屬性的實在之間的關系。但是漢魏時期的名實關系論則帶有明顯的政治色彩,已不單是一個語言學或邏輯學問題,而主要是一門如何認識、選拔、使用和評價人才的知識論和政治學。它主要包含三個方面的內容:一是品鑒的名實,它主要關注人才的流目品題與實際才能之間的關系。二是才性的名實,主要研究人的才能與德性的離、合、同、異關系。它的興起與曹魏時期唯才是舉的人才選拔制度有著密切關系。三是律學的名實,它主要研究的是官職的權責關系,以便進一步“參伍形名”——綜合比驗官吏的實踐效果與法規的文字規定之間的對應關系。 
                  魏晉士人在“清談”或“談坐”這一學術社交活動中,十分講究邏輯、修辭技巧,尤其是對辯論的技巧方法有著高度的自覺。所以,清談其實就是一門關乎語言技藝和思想歷練的活動。徐干在《中論·核辯》中指出,“夫辯者,求服人心也,非屈人口也”,表明辯論的目的是辯明義理而非賣弄語辭,應該遵守“在彼猶在己”的原則,以求得以理服人的效果。劉劭亦在《人物志·材理篇》中認為,“夫辯有理勝,有辭勝理”,指出真正的辯論不能以辭害意,應該以辯明物理與人倫之定則為目的,看重的是言辭意義而非言辭的邏輯規則。絕大多數魏晉士人與徐、劉一樣,皆對運用形式邏輯進行詭辯的方法持排斥態度,視詭辯為純粹的游辭和狡辯。這是因為詭辯固然可以使人關注到詞與物的關系,不過極有可能將人類認知引向相對主義和懷疑主義的困境,對人類追求理論知識的真確性構成了威脅。該時代的人們只偶然會提及先秦名學論題,如西晉魯勝《注墨辯序》便對名家予以了高度評價,然魯勝又說:“自鄧析至秦時名家者,世有篇籍,率頗難知,后學莫復傳習,于今五百余歲,遂亡絕。”這表明先秦名家的語言邏輯學傳統幾成絕唱。這從一個側面反映了整個魏晉南北朝時期的語言之自覺大都集中在了如何超越語言的形式性和有限性上面,阻礙了增進語言與邏輯工具之細致嚴密性的努力。 
                   
                  二、言意之辨與語言的功能問題 
                   
                  與魏晉南北朝士人從語言邏輯轉向形上玄思的趨勢恰恰相反,現代西方哲學的“語言轉向”通常是以拒斥或懸置形而上學為口號的,認為形上玄思才是對語言的誤用。維特根斯坦在他的《邏輯哲學論》中曾說:“凡是能夠說的事情,都能夠說清楚;凡是不能說的事情,就應該沉默。”他要求人們老實承認形而上學的東西不可言說。與此形成鮮明對照的是,中國傳統思維雖然承認形而上學超出了語言的范圍,不過卻一直致力于“說不可說”的思想任務。 
                  魏晉士人以深受老莊思想浸潤的王弼(公元226年一公元249年)為代表,采取了與先秦道家語言觀相近的立場,不僅認同“得意忘言”,而且認同“得意忘象”。王弼空前重視超越于語言和形象之上的“意”,是義理派易學興起的關鍵人物。王弼《周易略例》所謂“得意在忘象,得象在忘言”,是說從理性言詮和經驗直觀中類推出來的意理,乃是對理性與經驗的融合與超越,是超絕言、象的。“意”在這里,不能簡單理解為“一個不屬于特定之物的理”——物理,而應該理解成認識主體通過卦言與卦象所表達的物理中所可能得到的啟發或感悟。與物理相對,我們可以將這種由人的啟發或感悟的東西統稱之為“心理”或“意理”,包含了對于物——我關系的把握取舍與價值判斷。 
                  結合王弼的《老子指略》來看,“意”的超越性與“道”的超越性有相似之處,都是終極而超越的,具有“無形無名”的特點,既超越形象亦超絕語言。反過來說,形象與語言皆由于其有限性,而無法表詮終極、無限、全體之道的,正所謂“名之不能當,稱之不能既”。語言之所以存在局限性,王弼的理由是“名必有所分,稱必有所由。”名言皆有所指,然由于其所指皆為有限、具體的事物,對于無所不指之道是無能為力的。不僅于此,稱謂皆有所詮,然由于其所詮皆為事物某個或某些方面的屬性,對于事物的真正本質是無法窮盡的。因此,王弼所說的“意理”是更接近于一種終極體驗和人生境界,要么是一種整體,要么是一種個人性的經驗,而語言表達是分析性的、公共性的,故“意理”本身是不可說的。王弼“言意之辨”的焦點,并不是在說明思維——語言——世界之間的關系,而是意在界定物我關系,以此來解決人們在這個世界中應該采取何種生存方式的問題。因此,王弼從一開始就沒有站在語言本體論和語言中心主義的立場,而是始終堅持了工具主義的語言觀。可以說包括王弼在內的大多數中國思想家,都強烈質疑用語言文字來充分表詮終極義理的可能性。對“道”的終極體悟要求人們越過詞與物的鴻溝,使人與物直接共處,達到一種物我交融的境界。王弼對終極本原的體悟,使得他的語言哲學思想既重視了思想的主體,又暗含了超出其主體自身之外,具備了一種介于主客體之間的“主體間性”的現代思維模式的特征。 
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