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                魏晉清談研究述評(一)

                時間: 2014-07-17 16:15    來源:中國論文下載中心         點擊:

                摘要:魏晉清談是我國中古史上最值得注意的一種文化現象,歷來研究不絕。古代的清談研究多注重政治批評,近代以來始轉向文化研究,并在清談起源、清談分期及流派、清談內容、清談之形式問題及清談的評價等方面形成了熱點,取得了豐碩的成果。

                關鍵詞:魏晉清談,研究,述評

                 

                 

                清談是我國中古史上最值得注意的一種文化現象,因其伴隨魏晉玄風而興起,故習慣上常稱之為魏晉清談。所謂“魏晉清談”,據臺灣學者唐翼明的定義,“指的是魏晉時代的貴族和知識分子,以探討人生、社會、宇宙的哲理為主要內容,以講究修辭技巧的談說論辯為基本方式而進行的一種學術社交活動。” [1] 由此可見,清談作為玄學思潮的一種外在表現形式,其文化上之意義要遠比其學理上之價值來得重要。

                關于魏晉清談,古今關注點頗不相同。清談對于今天來說,固然可以高雅文化視之,但在其所以發生之時,實有關于政治。如玄學的“有無之辨”實關乎士人名教與自然之選擇,而“才性四本”之論更與當時政治集團之歸屬向背緊密相關,絕非“僅作名士身份之裝飾品也”。 [2] 清談家們祖述虛無,好為玄遠,對政治上“不以物務自嬰”的風氣不能沒有影響,對社會上放達任誕之士風亦有直接的推動作用,因此在古代,清談常成為“五朝不競”的替罪羊,正視不足而討伐有余。西晉傅玄在《舉清遠疏》中的一段有名的話最能說明問題:“近者魏武好法術,而天下貴刑名;魏文慕通達,而天下賤守節。其后綱維不攝,而虛無放誕之論,盈于朝野,使天下無復清議,而亡秦之病,復發于外矣。”(《晉書》本傳)范寧更將“禮崩樂壞,中原傾覆”的責任歸諸王弼、何晏,指斥“二人之罪,深于桀紂”!(《晉書·范汪附子寧傳》)余如干寶、葛洪、裴頠、江惇、卞壼、應詹、熊遠、陳 頵 等亦著論嚴辭批評,就連清談名士如王衍、桓溫、王羲之諸人,也都或自責或反省,將亡國之咎歸諸清談。

                可以說,“清談誤國”的罪名并非后人追加,而是清談當代士大夫階層多數人“痛定思痛”的共識。既然“肇事者”主動投案,無怪后人蓋棺論定時要作誅心之論。唐修《晉書·儒林傳序》云:“有晉始自中朝,迄于江左,莫不崇飾華競,祖述玄虛,擯闕里之正經,習正始之余論,指禮法為流俗,目縱誕以清高。遂使憲章弛廢,名教頹毀,五胡乘間而競逐,二京繼踵以淪胥。運極道消,可為長嘆息者矣。”顧炎武《日知錄》“正始”條亦稱:“講明《六經》,鄭玄、王肅為集漢之終;演說老、莊,王弼、何晏為開晉之始。以至國亡于上,教淪于下,羌戎互僭,君臣屢易,非林下諸賢之咎而誰哉?”又說:“有亡國有亡天下。亡國與亡天下奚辨?曰:易姓改號謂之亡國,仁義充塞而至于率獸食人,人將相食,謂之亡天下。魏晉人之清談何以亡天下?是孟子所謂楊墨之言,至于使天下無父無君而入于禽獸者也。……自正始以來,而大義之不明遍于天下。”將“亡天下”之罪一概歸諸清談。趙翼《廿二史劄記》“六朝清談之習”條亦溯其源,察其變,于清談習尚之弊端致意再三。古今雖偶有持平之論, [3] 然終難翻案。

                總之,古代對于清談的評論無論褒貶毀譽,皆與政治有關,直至近代,人們對于魏晉清談的認識才真正由政治批評轉向文化研究。近代以來的清談文化研究,首先發端于東瀛,以市村瓚次郎發表于 1919 年的《清談源流考》 [4] 振起先聲,其后方波及海內,至今不絕。察波觀瀾,其所注意者主要集中在以下幾個方面:

                (一)清談的起源問題 敘述清談文化興衰嬗變之過程,尤以近人錢穆所說最為簡明生動。錢穆說:“東漢之季,士厭于經生章句之學,四方學者,薈萃京師,漸開游談之風。至于魏世,遂有‘清談'之目。及正始之際,而蔚成風尚。何晏、王弼為時宗師,竹林諸賢,聞聲繼起。至于王衍、樂廣,流風愈暢。典午既東,此風盛于江左,習尚相沿,直至隋業一統,始見革除。” [5] 話雖不多,清談之起、承、轉、衰無不一一點逗清楚。而清談起源之問題實際上包含兩個層面:一是清談的思想源頭,二是清談風氣之肇端。對前一問題,學界不約而同追溯至東漢,但在思想淵源究竟出自王充還是馬融則存在爭議。 20 世紀 20 年代,錢穆以翔實材料和滔滔雄辯,率先接橥王充《論衡》一書對于魏晉玄學思潮形成的開創意義,指出:“尋至于典午清談,視亡國若無事,亦未始非王氏之論有以助成之也。” [6] 40 年代,探討和爭鳴仍在繼續。先是賀昌群 在《清談之起源》一文中將漢末大儒馬融作為清談“一啟蒙人物” [7] ,而孫道昇則認為“王充的哲學思想是魏晉清談家之思想的唯一源泉,魏晉清談家之思想,濫觴于王充,導源于王充之《論衡》” [8] 。兩年后,杜國庠撰《魏晉清談及其影響》一文,認為“清談的濫觴也不能限自正始”,在東漢一些經學大師如賈逵、許慎、盧植、鄭玄、馬融的身上,“已或多或少地表現出了清談的作風和因素”。 [9] 近年來,范子燁又提出清談“由西漢時代著名學者和作家揚雄開其先河”的觀點。 [10] 其實,一味地上溯還可追溯到戰國時代的莊子,但也會使論題離清談的思想實質越來越遠。我以為在這個問題上,錢穆、孫道昇等人的“王充說”較為妥帖可靠。 [11] 對于清談作為一種談辨風氣的形式肇端問題,學界大多持“漢末清議說”,陳寅恪、唐長孺、杜國庠等學者多持此說,幾成定論。 90年代, 唐翼明在錢穆、余英時的基礎上,力駁眾議,認為漢末“清議”主要在于議論時政和品評人物,實無關于抽象之哲理,故可排斥于清談定義之外,而清談之風則源自漢末太學的“游談”之風。 [12] 盡管唐氏魏晉清談之概念或有可商,但其條分縷析的邏輯論證的確使許多前人無暇深究的問題得到了廓清。

                (二)清談的分期及流派 這一研究實際上包含了對清談起于何時、宗于何人、如何發展嬗變等諸多問題的回答。古之學者如 趙翼稱“清談起于魏正始中”,以何晏、王弼為宗,“直至隋平陳之后,始掃除之”,論列清談流變甚清楚,但尚未作出明確分期。(《廿二史劄記·六朝清談之習》)現代學者方始措意此一問題。陳寅恪根據與政治之關系將清談分為前后兩期,以“魏末西晉時代為清談的前期”,“東晉一朝為清談后期”,(《魏晉南北朝史講錄》)視野宏通而略顯籠統。繆鉞則認為:“魏晉清談之變,可分為四期。魏正始為第一期,魏晉間為第二期,西晉為第三期,東晉為第四期。”(《冰繭庵叢稿》)線條清析而失之簡單。同持“四期說”的還有無畏,他將魏晉清談分為“正始”、“正元至景元”、“咸寧至元康”、“永和”四期,較為具體而有欠舒展。 [13] 唐翼明采用的是“三分法”,將漢末“游談”及魏太和初作為清談的“醞釀與成形”期,魏末至西晉至元康為“將絕而復興”期,東晉及南朝為清談的“重振與衰落”期,時間和空間的廣度均有拓展。范子燁在其新著《中古文人生活研究》中綜合 諸說,以年號和公元紀年兩種方式出之,將中古清談厘為萌芽( 147-239)、形成(240-249)、鼎盛(250-419)、衰落(420-589)四期,思路清晰,針腳綿密,遂將中古清談演變之跡盡顯其中。至于清談的流派問題,一般在分期問題中就被涉及。通行的說法有三種,一是劉大杰的“名理”和“玄論”兩派說, [14] 一是日本學者宮崎市定的“清議”和“清談”兩派說, [15] 一是湯用彤的“貴無”和“崇有”兩派說。 [16] 三說著眼點不同而各有理路,特別是湯氏之說,將魏晉清談各時期代表人物及其學說有機貫穿,乃最具通識之卓見。

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