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                魏晉的自然思想散論(7)

                時間: 2014-07-17 15:59    來源:人民日報         點擊:
                阮籍認為,在上古合乎自然的名教世界中,有兩個特色。其一,泯除了嚴格劃分是非與善惡之相對價值標準,他認為必須善惡不分,是非不爭的情況下,人才能回返自然。又以為“太初”時代,真人或是至人其處世不挾帶是非與善惡,遂使世界人類蒙受好處。而真人或是至人乃最為道家之徒所推崇者,因之其所為——無是非與善惡之分別——固當為崇信道家之徒(包括阮籍與嵇康)所爭效。其二,人之政治(社會)地位與經濟地位平等,即無貴賤與貧富的差別待遇。

                    我們且以阮籍的一段文章,綜合涵蓋阮、嵇兩人的自然思想:

                    嗚呼,時不若歲,歲不若天,天不若道,道不若神。神者,自然之根也。彼句句者自以為貴乎世矣。而惡知夫世之賤乎茲哉?故與世爭貴,貴不足尊。與世爭富,富不足先。必超世而絕群,遺俗而獨往。……夫如是,則可謂富貴矣。是故不與堯舜齊德,不與湯武并功。王許不足以為匹,陽丘豈能與比蹤。天地且不能越其壽,廣成子曾何足與并容?激八風以揚聲,躡元吉之高蹤。被九天以開除兮,來云氣以馭飛龍。專上下以制統兮,殊古今而靡同。夫世之名利,胡足以累之哉?

                    時間觀念對阮嵇兩人而言,極為重要。有人只重上古以下或是當時,阮嵇兩人大肆抨擊禮法,便以為他們是反對禮法并否定其價值”。有人知道他們所反對的只是假禮法,對真的仍加以維護并肯定其價值;但對甄別真假的標準,卻不了然。其實,標準是在于有無合乎自然。自然一辭,對阮嵇兩人而言,不僅是一種價值判斷,而且也是各種主張的理據。

                    依據儒家理想建立的第一個政權——漢帝國——的崩解,難免使人懷疑儒家一些中心信念,包括以道德和法律維護人類社會秩序的文化行為,進而導致人們對這種文化行為產生不值采信的情緒甚至想法。

                    緊接漢朝之后的魏政權經曹操、曹丕、曹睿、曹芳祖孫四代的苦心擘劃,政治上走的是“亂世用重典”的法家路線。其實政治圈中仍承漢末法家政論抬頭的余緒,一直在熱烈討論如何使刑名之學運用在政治上,借以強化法家政治的功能。這是在促使一種理想——如何使舉世的真正人才盡納入政治權力運作結構中——實現的努力。但這種努力似乎功效不著,因而證明是枉費心機。

                    如果將仁、義、禮當成一種對策的話,是無法徹底解決問題的,只是徒然不斷在制作新對策,然而,問題依舊不知伊于胡底。王弼并以大小比較的觀點,來證明道、德、仁、義、禮五者是呈現一種由大至小的逐漸下降的排列秩序。

                    一般認為時代愈是紛亂,即表示人心愈形渙散,不為社會道德所約束,道德水準也就江河日下,因此也愈需提倡道德,以收拾人心。這是將道德之高下與時局之美惡,作為因果關系看待。但是,張湛卻不以為然,他反而認定,道德并非萬能而是有其限度,其功能之生效僅止于上天注定時代要趨于好轉時。(摘自人民日報 《大地》雜志)    (國風)
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