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                明末饑荒慘狀:殺人而食

                時間: 2012-07-13 11:59    來源:         點擊:
                原文標題:明末河南大饑荒:村鎮餓死一空 城市皆殺人而食
                副標題#e# 核心提示:當時在城內明南京兵部尚書呂維祺深感形勢的嚴峻,他在給福王的信中說:三載奇荒,亙古未聞。村鎮之餓死一空,城市皆殺人而食。 style="text-align: center"> 本文摘自《志大才疏的李自成》,作者:王興亞,出版社:中國社會科學出版社 李自成起義軍進入河南后,處于敗而復振時期,兵力不足,遂由淅川、內鄉沿伏牛山北上,這里山嶺起伏,道路險阻,居民稀少,有著不少的無業流民寄居其中。十二月,連克魯山、郟縣、伊陽三縣,二十一日到達宜陽。宜陽東距洛陽70里。位于洛河依山面水,北瀕洛河,南緊靠錦屏山,形成一道扇形天然屏障。明知縣唐啟泰在城內固守,農民軍英勇機智地登上錦屏山,觀察城內動靜虛實,發起猛烈進攻,一舉破城,俘獲唐啟泰立即處斬,明確提出“不殺平民,唯殺官”。二十四日,繼續西進,攻打永寧(今河南洛寧)。知縣武大烈與退居鄉里的明南京吏部驗封司主事張鼎延在城內組織軍民固守。武大烈守北城,張鼎延守南城,都司馬有義守東城,守備王正已守西城。經過三晝夜激戰,義軍在李自成指揮下,用大炮轟開東城雉堞,城內獄徒牛可敬、魏之明與之配合,破獄而出,引導義軍駕云梯登城,抓捕了知縣武大烈、明萬安王朱采和鄉紳百余人,在縣西關一一“過堂”公審后處斬。隨即,連破熊耳四十八山寨,河南當地義軍一斗谷率部來歸,李自成的部隊已增加到數十萬人。不到一個月的時間,又連克偃師、靈寶、新安、寶豐,掃清了洛陽的外圍。 古都洛陽乃豫西重鎮,是福王朱常洵的藩府所在地。此人為明神宗第三子,生母是明神宗最寵愛的鄭貴妃。子以母貴。朱常洵受到神宗的特別偏愛。按照神宗的意圖是要立常洵為太子的。迫于傳統觀念與朝臣輿論壓力,他才勉強同意立皇長子朱常洛為太子。由于朝廷的初衷不能如愿,于是挺擊案、移宮案與紅丸案接踵繼起,使朝臣卷入這種沒完沒了的宮廷紛爭的漩渦之中而無心思去處理國家的正常事務。同時由于朱常洵太子夢不能如愿,神宗便在經濟上給常洵以補償,不僅破例大行賞賜,對于福王莊田、食鹽、商稅等要求,無不一一應允,也無不朝報而夕可。萬歷二十九年(1601年),神宗封他為福王,為他操辦婚禮費用高達30萬金,在洛陽為他修建壯麗王府,超出一般王制10倍的花費。億萬錢財,皆入福王藩圍,福王要求賜田4萬頃,由于沒有那么多的土地可供賜予,只好減半。福王來到洛陽后,派遣府中官役,到處圈占土地,千方百計搜刮,聚集財富,富甲天下,過著紙醉金迷,窮奢極欲的生活,寧可讓糧食糜爛在糧倉中,寧可眼睜睜地看著成千上萬的饑民活活餓死,也不肯拿出一粒賑濟貧苦百姓。因而,激起民眾的強烈憤慨。李自成正是根據民眾的這一迫切愿望,作出了攻打洛陽的決策。 崇禎十四年(1641年)正月,李自成在豫西的發展,當時在城內明南京兵部尚書呂維祺深感形勢的嚴峻,他在給福王的信中說:“三載奇荒,亙古未聞。村鎮之餓死一空,城市皆殺人而食。處處土賊盤踞,加以流賊數萬陰相結合,連破魯山、郟縣、伊陽三縣,又六日之內,連破宜陽、永寧二縣。賊勢洶涌,窺洛甚急。無堅不破,無攻不克。且饑民之思亂可虞,人心之瓦解堪慮。況撫臺大兵無一至,雖有操、義二兵,亦無糧餉,及城頭垛夫又皆鬼形鳩面而垂斃者。城中一無可恃,有累卵朝露之危。”他希望福王能夠敦促河南巡撫李仙風急派軍隊來洛陽加強城防;并且建議福王為自己的身家性命著想,拿出錢來解決城內守軍的糧餉。呂維祺以宜陽、永寧二城失陷為借鑒,說兩座城里的宗室官紳,悠悠忽忽,靠天度日,一籌不劃,一錢不舍,一言不聽,今雖噬臍,悔之何益?希望朱常洵不要充當眼光短淺的守財奴,最后落到噬臍無及的地步。可是,要錢不要命的朱常洵卻聽不進去。 數十萬農民軍向洛陽聚集。十七日,河南府總兵王紹禹率劉見義、羅泰二副將赴援。紹禹要求入城守御,福王不許,王紹禹強行入城,而劉、羅二將則被拒絕,駐扎在東關。 李自成兵臨洛陽城下。城內明軍分兵把守:兵備副使王胤昌守西門,知府馮一俊守南門,知縣張正學守東門,通判白尚文守北門,總兵王紹禹、推官衛精忠發游兵巡徼。由于缺餉,守城的官軍士兵以至一部分中下級裨將怨聲載道,大罵:“王府里金錢百萬,厭食粱肉,而讓我們餓著肚子死于賊手。”
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